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Abstracts of Recent Publications
Abstracts 1 2 3 4 5  

001- Ruyin Liu, Dong Li, Yingxin Gao, Yu Zhang, Song Wu, Ran Ding, Abd El - Latif Hesham and Min Yang.  State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco - Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, China. Microbial diversity in the anaerobic tank of a full-scale produced water treatment plant. Process Biochemistry, 45(5),  2010, 744 - 751.

Microbial characteristics in the anaerobic tank of a full-scale produced water treatment plant capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon removal were analyzed and  compared to those in the influent produced water using cultivation - independent molecular methods. Clones related to methanogens including the methylotrophic Methanomethylovorans thermophila and hydrogen - and the formate-utilizing  Methanolinea tarda were in abundance in both samples, but greater numbers of M. tarda-like clones were detected in the biofilm library. Both DGGE and cloning analysis results indicated that the archaea in the biofilm were derived from the influent produced water. Bacterial communities in the influent and biofilm samples were significantly different. Epsilonproteobacteria was the dominant bacterial group in the influent while Nitrospira and Deltaproteobacteria were the predominant groups in the biofilm. Many clones related to syntrophic bacteria were found among the Deltaproteobacteria. One Deltaproteobacteria clone was related to Syntrophus, which is commonly found in methanogenic hydrocarbon - degrading consortia. A number of Deltaproteobacteria clones were assigned to the clone cluster group TA, members of which predominate in various methanogenic consortia that degrade aromatic compounds. These results suggest that a microbial community associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation may have been established in the biofilm.

Keywords: Produced water; Anaerobic tank; Biofilm; Archaea; Bacteria; Community.


002-Mal Nam Kim and Moon Gyung Yoon, Department of Biology, Sangmyung University, Seoul 110 - 743, Republic of Korea. Isolation of strains degrading poly(Vinyl alcohol) at high temperatures and their biodegradation ability. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 64 (3), 2010, 184 - 190.

Thermophilic strains were isolated for the first time using activated sludge retrieved from wastewater treatment plant of a Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) producing factory for biodegradation of PVA at relatively high temperatures. The isolated strains were identified to be Geobacillus tepidamans, Brevibacillus brevis and Brevibacillus limnophilus. The former  strain degraded PVA for itself, while the latter 2 strains digested PVA symbiotically. PVA degradation activity of the isolated strains was assessed at first by the halo zone size formed around the colonies and finally by the modified Sturm test. The biodegradation rate of PVA was explored also in the presence of different dyes, because most of the wastewater from PVA - consuming factories contains waste dyes. 

Keywords: Poly Vinyl Alcohol; Biodegradation; Thermophilic bacterium; Geobacillus tepidamans; Brevibacillus brevis; Brevibacillus limnophilus.


003-B. Rincón, F. Raposo, R. Borja , J.M. Gonzalez, M.C. Portillo and C. Saiz - Jimenez. Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Avda. Padre García Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. Performance and microbial communities of a continuous stirred tank anaerobic reactor treating two - phases olive mill  solid wastes at low organic loading rates. Bioresource Technology, 101 (11), 2010, 3952 - 3957.

A study of the performance and microbial communities of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating two-phases olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) was carried out at laboratory - scale. The reactor operated at a mesophilic temperature (35 °C) and an influent substrate concentration of 162 g total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) L−1 and 126 g volatile solids (VS) L−1. The data analyzed in this work corresponded to a range of organic loading rates (OLR) of between 0.75 and 3.00 g COD L−1 d−1, getting removal efficiencies in the range of 97.0 - 95.6%. Methane production rate increased from 0.164 to 0.659 L CH4 Lreactor−1 d−1when the OLR increased within the tested range. Methane yield coefficients were 0.225 L CH4 g−1 COD removed and 0.290 L CH4g−1 VS removed and were virtually independent of the OLR applied. A molecular characterization of the microbial communities involved in the process was also accomplished. Molecular identification of microbial species was performed by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and sequencing. Among the predominant microorganisms in the bioreactor, the Firmicutes (mainly represented by Clostridiales) were the most abundant group, followed by the Chloroflexi and the Gamma - Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas species as the major representative). Other bacterial groups detected in the bioreactor were the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Deferribacteres. Among the Archaea, the methanogen Methanosaeta concilii was the most representative species.

Keywords: Two -  phases olive mill solid waste; Anaerobic digestion; Performance; Microbial community.


004-T. Hiuraa, Y. Hashidoko, Y. Kobayashi, S. Tahara. Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, N-9, W-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 - 8589, Japan. Effective degradation of tannic acid by immobilized rumen microbes of a sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in winter. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 155 (1), 2010, 1 - 8.

In winter seasons, wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) inhabiting the Shiretoko Peninsula of Hokkaido Island, Japan, mainly graze woody materials (bark and twigs, etc.) as their feed source. Most of the tree species that they feed upon contain a high level of hydrolysable tannins within the inner bark. Tannins generally lead to low protein digestion and nutrient loss to these herbivorous mammals due to tannization of proteins. In winter months, it is speculated that wild sika deer develop a mechanism to degrade the tannins which are contained in their feed sources, but rumen fluid obtained from sika deer in winter months did not exhibit any ability to degrade tannins in liquid culture medium. However, constant degradation of hydrolysable tannin was observed when Ca - alginate gel beads were used for microbial immobilization and culturing. The gel beads that had been impregnated with 0.6×104 fold - diluted rumen fluid of sika deer in winter and pre-incubated for 24 h under anaerobic conditions supplemented with a 1.5 g/L sugar were reacted with 5 g/L tannic acid solution. Under these conditions, the immobilized rumen bacteria grown in the macrogel beads effectively hydrolyzed tannic acid to release gallic acid monomers. Major bacterial colonies emerging in the Ca-alginate gel beads were identified as Streptococcus macedonicus and this bacterium (EC-D140) was regarded as the most likely candidate as the tannin - degrading bacterium.

Keywords: Winter sika deer; Rumen microbes; Tannic acid; Ca-alginate gel beads; Streptococcus macedonicus.


005-Gertler C, Näther DJ, Gerdts G, Malpass MC, Golyshin PN. School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor, LL57 2UW, Gwynedd, UK. A Mesocosm study of the changes in marine flagellate and ciliate communities in a crude oil bioremediation trial. Microbial Ecology, 60(1),  2010, 180  - 191.

Protozoan grazers play an important role in controlling the density of crude - oil degrading marine communities as has been evidenced in a number of microcosm experiments. However, small bioreactors contain a low initial titre of protozoa and the growth of hydrocarbon - depleting bacteria is accompanied by the fast depletion of mineral nutrients and oxygen, which makes microcosms rather unsuitable for simulating the sequence of events after the oil spill in natural seawater environment. In the present study, the population dynamics of marine protozoan community have been analysed in a 500 l mesocosm experiment involving bioaugmented oil booms that contained oil sorbents and slow-release fertilisers. A significant increase in numbers of marine flagellates and ciliates on biofilms of oil - degrading microbes was microscopically observed as early as 8 days after the start of the experiment, when protozoa exhibited a population density peak making up to 3,000 cells ml(-1). Further, the protozoan density varied throughout the experiment, but never dropped below 80 cells ml(-1). An 18S rRNA gene - based fingerprinting analysis revealed several changes within the eukaryotic community over the whole course of the experiment. Initial growth of flagellates and small ciliates was followed by a predominance of larger protozoa. According to microscopic observations and SSU rRNA molecular analysis, most predominant were the ciliates belonging to Euplotidae and Scuticociliatia. This is the first study to characterise the eukaryotic communities specifically in a large - scale oil bioremediation trial using both microscopy - based and several molecular techniques.


ENVIS CENTRE Newsletter Vol.8,Issue 2 Apr - Jun 2010  
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