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Short Communication D. DHANASEKARAN, J. VIDHYALAKSHMI, G. RAJAKUMAR, A. PANNEERSELVAM AND N. THAJUDDIN Dept. of Microbiology Adhiparasakthi College of Science G.B.Nagar, Kalavai, Vellore Dist. s P.G. & Research Department of Botany & Microbiology, A.V.V.M. Sri Pushpam College , (Autonomous), Poondi-613503. Thanjavur Dist, Tamil Nadu , India . National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria (Sponsored by DBT, Govt of India ), Department of Microbiology, Bharathidasan University , Trichirapalli-620024, India

Plastic is a common term used to include all sorts of polythene (polyethylene) and polyvinyl chloride (PCV) materials. These materials have an advantage in being cost effective, light weight, flexible and in their ability to be molded according to the user and producer made the plastics ubiquitous. But the problem which neutralizes all these attributes, in their recalcitrance, i.e., they cannot be degraded easily by nature.

The main effect of land pollution by plastics is the blockage of rain water from getting underground, thus, reducing ground water level. These plastic wastes can be disposed off by either recycling or incineration. Recycling is not widely used now because of economics. Even incineration causes air pollution, as combustion of plastic in mass will release highly toxic organic compounds into the air. Vinyl chloride and acrylonirrile are classified as environmental carcinogens while some whiteners and toxicants.

Recent research found that most of the constituents of plastics can be microbially degraded and the film plastics can be treated by microbial systems. Acrylonirrile fibers are attacked by species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Stachybotrys, and Nigrespora . Polycaprolactone is degraded by Aspergillus niger , Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium fumiculosum, Chactomium globosum and Pullularia pullulans.

Fungi like Aspergillus fumigatus, Chactomium thermophile, Humicola lanuginose, Mucorpusillus and Torula thermophile can degrade plastic polymer of thermophilic temperature of 48 ° C. Strains like Penicillium fumiculosum and Candida lipolytica degrade plastics.

Using polymerized vinyl acetate or ethylene copolymer, dissolved out the substrate by depolymerisation. Pullularia pullulans can degrade polycarpolactone and other aliphatic polyesters. N-alkenes, alkenes and other aliphatic hydrocarbons are readily utilized by yeasts and fungi. Since a wide variety of fungi grow and degrade plastics and their polymers, only they have to be upgraded.

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