The stages of macrophage interaction with a fungus, which results in the killing of the pathogen or survival by various mechanisms. The macrophage migrates towards the fungus by chemotaxis, resulting in the interaction of the fungal cell surface pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) with macrophage pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs), which leads to phagocytosis of the fungus into a phagosomal compartment. Subsequently, a series of lysosomal vesicle fusion events, mediated by RAB GTPases, results in the formation of the toxic mature phagolysosome compartment that can kill the phagocytosed fungus. However, the fungus may interfere with chemotaxis, impede phagosome maturation, induce non-lytic expulsion, or cause macrophage lysis by piercing the phagocyte membrane or through the induction of pyroptosis. b | A scanning electron microscope image showing an ultrafine macrophage protrusion sampling the extended environment in the presence of Candida albicans. c | A confocal microscope image of J774 macrophages cultured with C. albicans for 3 hours.
Macrophage – fungus interactions