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001-J.P. Biggerstaffa, M. Le Puilb, B.L. Weidowa, J. Leblanc-Gridleya, E. Jenningsc, J. Busch- Harrisc, K.L. Sublettec, D.C. Whitea & R.S. Alberteb University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, United States. A novel and in-situ technique for the quantitative detection of MTBE and benzene degrading bacteria in contaminated matrices. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 68 2007, 437–441.

A novel and in-situ technique is presented here as a better alternative to culture-dependent and PCR-based techniques for the quantitative detection of predominant bacterial species involved in the bioremediation of contaminants. It allowed rapid, specific and in-situ identification of Biosep®-immobilized eubacteria from MTBE- and benzene-contaminated matrices.

Keywords:MTBE,Fueloxygenate,Bioremediation,FISH,Spectralimaging,methyl tertbutyl ether, tert-butyl alcohol,microorganisms, bioremediation.


002-Sunday A. Adebusoyea, Flynn W. Picardalb, Matthew O. Iloria, Olukayode O. Amunda & Clay Fuquac, Nathan Grindlec Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0919, USA. Aerobicdegradation of di-and trichlorobenzenes by two bacteria isolated from polluted tropical soils. Chemosphere, 66 2007, 1939–1946.

Two polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)- degrading bacteria were isolated by traditional enrichment technique from electrical transformer fluid (Askarel)-contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria. They were classified and identified as Enterobacter sp. SA-2 and Pseudomonas sp. SA-6on the basis of 16S rRNA gene analysis, in addition to standard cultural and biochemical techniques. The strains were able to grow extensively on dichloro- and trichlorobenzenes. Although they failed to grow on tetrachlorobenzenes, monochloro- and dichlorobenzoic acids, they were able to utilize all monochlorobiphenyls, and some dichlorobiphenyls as sole sources of carbon and energy. The effect of incubation with axenic cultures on the degradation of 0.9 mM 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 0.44 mM 1,2,3- and 0.43 mM 1,3,5- trichlorobenzene in mineral salts medium was studied. Approximately, 80–90% of these xenobiotics were degraded in 200 h, concomitant with cell increase of up to three orders of magnitude, while generation times ranged significantly (P < 0.05) from 17–32 h. Catechol 1,2- dioxygenase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activities were detected in crude cell-free extracts of cultures pre-grown with benzoate, with the latter enzyme exhibiting a slightly higher activity (0.15–0.17 mol min-1 mg of protein-1) with catechol, suggesting that the meta-cleavage pathway is the most readily available catabolic route in the SA strains. The wider substrate specificity of these tropical isolates may help in assessing natural detoxification processes and in designing bioremediation and bioaugmentation methods.

Keywords: Aerobic biodegradation, Soil pollutants, Chlorobenzene, Enterobacter sp, Bioremediation, polychlorinated biphenyl, Pseudomonas sp, bioremediation.


003- Margherita Liccianoa, Loredana Stabilia,b, Adriana Giangrandea & Rosa Anna Cavallob Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Via Prov. Lecce-Monteroni, 73100- Lecce, Italy. Bacterial accumulation by Branchiomma luctuosum (Annel ida: Polychaeta): A tool for biomonitoring marine systems and restoring polluted waters. Marine Environmental Research, 63, 2007, 291–302.

In this study, we examined the bacterial accumulation in the filter feeder polychaete Branchiomma luctuosum GRUBE (Sabellidae).Analyses were performed on worm homogenates from ‘unstarved’ and ‘starved’ individuals, and seawater from the same sampling site (Gulf of Taranto, Western Mediterranean, Italy). Densities of culturable heterotrophic bacteria (22oC), total culturable bacteria at 37oC and halophilic vibrios at 22 and 35oC were measured on Marine Agar 2216, Plate Count Agar and thiosulphate-citrate-bile-saltagar (TCBS) plus 2% NaCl, respectively. Total and faecal coliforms as well as faecal streptococci were determined by the Most Probable Number method. Results showed that B.luctuosum is able to accumulate all the considered six microbiological groups with a higher efficiency for autochthonous bacteria. The analysis also indicated that bacterial groups differ in their resistant to digestion by B. luctuosum. Our data suggest the potential role of B. luctuosum as an useful bioindicator to assess low levels of microbiological water pollution as well as bioremediator of microbial polluted waters.

Keywords: Bacterial accumulation; Bioindicator; Bioremediation; Branchiomma luctuosum; Faecal contamination indicators; Filter feeding; Polychaetes; Vibrio, bioremediation.


004-A.K. Friisa, E.A. Edwardsb, H.-J. Albrechtsena, K.S. Udellc, M. Duhamelb & P.L. Bjerga, Institute of Environment & Resources, Technical University of Denmark, building 115, Bygningstorvet, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. Dechlorination after thermal treatment of a TCEcontaminated aquifer: Laboratory experiments. Chemosphere, 67, 2007, 816–825.

A microcosm study was conducted to evaluate dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene and survival of dechlorinating bacteria after a thermal treatment in order to explore the potential for post-thermal bioremediation. Unamended microcosms containing groundwater and aquifer material from a contaminated site dechlorinated TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), while lactate-amended microcosms dechlorinated TCE to cDCE or ethene. A thermal treatment was simulated by heating a sub-set of microcosms to 100oC for 10 d followed by cooling to 10oC over 150 d. The heated microcosms demonstrated no dechlorination when unamended. However, whenamended with lactate, cDCE was produced in 2 out of 6 microcosms within 300 d after heating. Dechlorination of TCE to cDCE thus occurred in fewer heated (2 out of 12) than unheated (10 out of 12) microcosms. In unheated microcosms, the presence of dechlorinating microorganisms, including Dehalococcoides, was confirmed using nested PCR of 16S rRNA genes. Dechlorinating microorganisms were detected in fewer microcosms after heating, and Dehalococcoides were not detected in any microcosms after heating. Dechlorination may therefore be limited after a thermal treatment in areas that have been heated to 100oC. Thus, inflow of groundwater containing dechlorinating microorganisms and/or bioaugmention may be needed for anaerobic dechlorination to occur after a thermal treatment.

Keywords:Remediation, Dechlorination, Groundwater, Chlorinatedethenes, Thermal treatment, 16SrRNAgenes, Dehalococcoides, dechlorination of trichloroethene, bioremediation.


005-C. Abruscia, D. Marquinaa, A. Santosa, A. Del Amob, T. Corralesc & F. Catalinac, Departamento de Fotoquimica de Polimeros, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, C.S.I.C. Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid, Spain. A chemiluminescence study on degradation of gelatine Biodegradation by bacteria and fungi isolated from cinematographic films. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 185, 2007, 188–197.

Chemiluminescence (CL) has become a sensitive tool for the study of polymer degradation, induced by exposure to various factors, such us heat, UV-light and oxygen. In this paper, the results obtained with this technique in the study of gelatine samples hydrolytically degraded under sterilisation conditions are presented. Also, photographic gelatine exposed to bacterial and fungal degradations, in water solution and under controlled condi t ions, have been studied by the chemiluminescence emission of their corresponding films and the biodegradation extent was determined by viscosity. The bacteria and fungi employed in this work have been isolated from cinematographic films in a previous work. The high intensities ofchemiluminescence emission obtained for gelatines biodegraded by bacteria and fungi, in aqueous solution at 37 and 25oC, respectively, are different from those obtained from the thermal degradation. The hydrolytic degradation mechanism is through a cleavage of the peptide bond of the protein without significant oxidation of the material. In contrast, biodegradation by bacteria and fungi at low temperatures decreases the molecular weight of the gelatine (viscosity) by the enzymatic activity but, also, produces an important oxidation in the material due to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the microbial metabolism.

Keywords:Chemiluminescence, Photographic gelatine, Biodegradation, Hydrolytic degradation, Sterilisation, Bacteria, Fungi, Staphylococcus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. lentus, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, biodegradation.


006-Xiaojun Li a, Peijun Lia,b, Xin Linb, Chungui Zhanga & Qi Lia, Zongqiang Gonga, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 417, Wenhua Road 72, Shenyang 110016, PR China. Biodegradation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microbial consortia in soil and slurry phases. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2007, 1-6.

Microbial consortia isolated from aged oilcontaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mg kg-1) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria–fungi complex) could degrade olycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry inoculated with fungi (50.1% and 55.4%, respectively). PAHs biodegradation in slurry was lower than in soil for bacteria and bacteria–fungi complex inoculation treatments. Degradation of three- to five-ring PAHs treated by consortia was observed in soil and slurry, and the highest degradation of individual PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) appeared in soi l (45.9–75.5%, 62–83.7% and 64.5–84.5%, respectively) and slurry (46.0–75.8%,50.2–86.1% and 54.3–85.7%, respectively). Therefore, inoculation of microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria–fungi complex) isolated from in situ contaminated soil to degrade PAHs could be considered as a successful method.

Keywords:PAHs,Microbialconsortia,Soil,Slurry,Degradation,Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,microorganisms,Pseudomonas sp,Sphingomonas,biodegradation.


007-Xinghui Qiua, Qiuzan Zhonga,b, Mei Lia & Wenqin Baia,C, Baotong Lic State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol by methyl parathion-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. B2. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 59 2007, 297–301.

Ochrobactrum sp. B2, a methyl parathiondegrading bacterium, was proved to be capable of using p-nitrophenol (PNP) as carbon and energy source. The effect of factors, such as temperature, pH value, and nutrition, on the growth of Ochrobactrum sp. B2 and its ability to degrade p-nitrophenol (PNP) at a higher concentration (100mgl-1) was investigated in this study. The greatest growth of B2 was observed at a temperature of 30oC and alkaline pH (pH 9–10). pH condition was proved to be a crucial factor affecting PNP degradation. Enhanced growth of B2 or PNP degradation was consistent with the increase of pH in the minimal medium, and acidic pH (6.0) did not support PNP degradation. Addition of glucose (0.05%, 0.1%) decreased the rate of PNP degradation even if increased cell growth occurred. Addition of supplemental inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride or ammonium sulphate) inhibited PNP degradation, whereas organic nitrogen (peptone, yeast extract, urea) accelerated degradation.

Keywords:p-nitro phenol, Biodegradation, Rhodobacter, inorganic nitrogen, bioremediation, chrobactrum, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, biodegradation.


008-Shankar Congeevarama, Sridevi Dhanarania, Joonhong Parkb, Michael Dexilina & Kaliannan Thamaraiselvia, Laboratoire de Génétique des Procaryotes, IBMM, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 12 rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, 6041 Gosselies, Belgium. Biosorption of chromium and nickel by heavy metal resistant fungal and bacterial isolates. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146, 2007, 270–277.

Microorganisms play a significant role in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater. In this study, heavy metal resistant fungi and bacteria were isolated from the soil samples of an electroplating industry, and the bioaccumulations of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) by these isolates were characterized to evaluate their applicability for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters. The optimum pH and temperature conditions for both the growth and heavy metal removal were determined for each isolate. The optimal pH for fungal isolates was lower (5–5.2) than that for bacterial isolates (7). The observed effect(s) of pH was attributable mainly to organism-specific physiology because in all the tested cases the cellular growth positively correlated with heavy metal removal. Batch and tolerance experiments provided information for solid retention time (SRT) design and the lethal tolerance limits for the isolated microorganisms. Experimental results indicated that expanded SRTs (stationary phase) can be recommended while using the fungal and bacterial Cr-resistant isolates for removing chromium. In the case of Ni-resistant bacterial isolate, a non-expanded SRT was recommended for designing continuous-flow completely stirred (CFCS) bioreactor so that a mid-log phase of cellular growth can be kept during the bioaccumulation process. The tolerance data with a high range of heavy metal concentrations revealed the Cr-resistant isolates, especially the fungal one, could tolerate chromium toxicity at up to 10,000 mg L-1 chromium. Result indicates the applicability of the isolated Micrococcus sp. and Aspergillus sp. for the removal of chromium and nickel from industrial wastewater.

Keywords:Fungi, Bacteria, Bioaccumulation, Metalbioremediation, pH, Aspergillus sp, Temperature, tolerance, Micrococcus sp, Aspergillus, Pseudomonas, Sporophyticus, physiology, Bacillus , Phanerochaete , microorganisms.


009-Sabine Grundmanna, Roland Fußa, Michael Schmidb, Manuela Laschingera, Bernhard Rutha, Rainer Schulinc, Jean Charles Muncha & Reiner Schrolla, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Application of microbial hot spots enhances pesticide degradation in soils. Chemosphere, 68 2007, 511–517.

Through transfer of an active, isoproturon degrading microbial community, pesticide mineralization could be successfully enhanced in various soils under laboratory and outdoor conditions. The microbes, extracted from a soil having high native ability to mineralize this chemical, were established on expanded clay particles and distributed to various soils in the form of microbial ‘‘hot spots’’. Both, diffusion controlled isoproturon mass flow towards these ‘‘hot spots’’ (6 g d-1) as well as microbial ability to mineralize the herbicides (approximately 5 g d-1) were identified as the main processes enabling a multiple augmentation of the native isoproturon mineralization even in soils with heavy metal contamination. Soil pH-value appears to exert an important effect on the sustainability of this process.

Keywords: 14C- isoproturon, Enhanced mineralization, Diffusion, Microbial community, in situ, Lysimeter, microbial pesticide degradation, 1, 2, 4-trichlorobenzene, microbes and metals.


010-Bernard Nicolardota, Lamia Bouziria, Fabiola Bastiana & Lionel Ranjard, Department of Biological Sciences , Michigan Technological University , 1400 Townsend Drive , Houghton ,MI 49931- 1295, USA. A microcosm experiment to evaluate the influence of location and quality of plant residues on residue decomposition and genetic structure of soil microbial communities. SoilBiology & Biochemistry, 39 2007, 1631–1644.

The effects of location (soil surface vs. incorporated in soil) and nature of plant residues on degradation processes and indigenous microbial communities were studied by means of soil microcosms incubation in which the different soil zones influenced by decomposition i.e. residues, soil adjacent to residues (detritusphere) and distant soil unaffected by decomposition (bulk soil) were
considered. Plant material decomposition, organic carbon assimilation by the soil microbial biomass and soil inorganic N dynamics were studied with 13C labelled wheat straw and young rye. The genetic structure of the community in each soil zones were compared between residue locations and type by applying B- and F-ARISA (for bacterial- and fungalautomated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) directly to DNA extracts from these different zones at 50% decomposition of each residue. Both location and biochemical quality affected residue decomposition in soil: 21% of incorporated 13C wheat straw and 23% left at the soil surface remained undecomposed at the end of incubation, the corresponding values for 13C rye being 1% and 8%. Residue decomposition induced a gradient of microbial activity with more labelled C incorporated into the microbial biomass of the detritusphere. The sphere of influence of the decomposing residues on the dynamics of soluble organic C and inorganic N in the different soil zones showed particular patterns which were influenced by both residue location and quality. Residue degradation stimulated particular genetic structure of microbial community with a gradient from residue to bulk soil, and more pronounced spatial heterogeneity for fungal than for bacterial communities. The initial residue quality strongly affected the resulting spatial heterogeneity of bacteria, with a significance betweenzone discrimination for rye but weak discrimination between the detritusphere and bulk soil, for wheat straw. Comparison of the different detrituspheres and residue zones (corresponding to different residue type and location), indicated that the genetic structure of the bacterial and fungal communities were specific to a
residue type for detritusphere and to its location for residue, leading to conclude that the detritusphere and residue correspond to distinct trophic and functional niches for microorganisms.

Keywords:Biodegradation;Cropresidues; Detritusphere; Microbial communities; Microcosms; Carbon 13; ARISA, biodegradation.


011-Gilles Mirallesa, Vincent Grossia, Monique Acquavivaa, Robert Duranb, Jean Claude Bertranda & Philippe Cunya, Laboratoire de Microbiologie, de Geochimie et d’Ecologie Marines , CNRS -UMR 6 11 7 , Ce n t r e d’Oceanologie de Marseille, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France. Alkane biodegradation and dynamics of phylogenetic subgroups of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anoxic coastal marine sediment artificially cont aminated with oil. Chemosphere, 68 2007, 1327–1334.

For 503 days, unoiled control and artificially oiled sediments were incubated in-situ at 20 m water depth in a Mediterranean coastal area. Degradation of the aliphatic fraction of the oil added was followed by GC–MS. At the same time, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA encoding genes was used to detect dynamics in the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) community in response to the oil contamination. Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets for five generic or suprageneric groups of SRB were used for PCR amplification of DNA extracted from sediments. During the experiment, hydrocarbons from C17 to C30 were significantly degraded even in strictly anoxic sediment layers. Of the five SRB groups, only two groups were detected in the sediments (control and oiled), namely the DesulfococcusDesulfonemaDesulfosarcina - like group and the DesulfovibrioDesulfomicrobium - like group. Statistical analysis of community patterns revealed dynamic changes over time within these two groups following the contamination. Significant differences in community patterns were recorded in artificially oiled compared with control sediments.

Keywords: Sulfate-reducing bacteria, in situ hydrocarbon biodegradat ion, T-RFLP fingerprinting, Field experiment, Mediterranean
Sea, Desulfococcus, biodegradation.


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